The Republic of Vietnam (Việt Nam Cộng hòa) was a nation is Southeast Asia from 1955 until 1975, also known as South Vietnam. Once considered a part of French Indochina, the region was occupied by the Japanese during the Second World War. Once the war had ended, the Việt Minh (who had fought the Japanese during the war) strongly opposed French re-occupation of the country. This opposition ultimately brought about the First Indochina War (1946 to 1954), in which French Colonial forces battled to preserve what remained of the old French Colonial Empire in Asia. After ten years of warfare, the Geneva Accords of 1954 effectively ended the conflict by declaring Indochina's independence from France. Two nations were created out of the territory traditionally considered Vietnamese: the Democratic Republc of Vietnam in the north, and the State of Vietnam in the south. Within a year, the South Vietnam was established after Ngô Đình Diệm deposed Emperor Bảo Đại and proclaimed himself president following a controversial election. His refusal to enter negotiations with North Vietnam over holding elections covering all of Vietnam led to gradual disintegration of diplomatic relations between the two countries, and instigated the Second Indochina War (1959 to 1975).
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was the name for all ground forces during the Second Indochina War (called the Vietnam War in the United States). Army units were organized into four Corps (I through IV), each covering a geographical region of South Vietnam. Primary combat units included eleven Infantry Divisions, one Airborne Division (Nhẩy Dù), the ARVN Rangers (Biệt Động Quân), and the ARVN Special Forces (Lực Lượng Đặc Biệt or LLDB). The Vietnam Air Force and Republic of Vietnam Navy (including the Republic of Vietnam Marine Corps or Thủy Quân Lục Chiến) made up the remainder of the South Vietnamese armed forces. Other combatant units during the Vietnam War included the National Police Field Force and the Civilian Irregular Defense Group (CIDG) units, the latter composed of minority tribal people, trained by the US Army Special Forces and funded primarily by the CIA (from 1961 until 1970).
Production of military uniforms in South Vietnam was primarily handled by the Quân-Nhu (Quartermaster) Military Clothing Production Center, activated in 1954 and responsible for the manufacture of textiles and complete uniforms for all of the armed forces of South Vietnam.