The modern Republic of Cuba (República de Cuba) came into existence following the Cuban Revolution (1953-1959), in which armed revolutionaries under Fidel Castro (the 26th of July Movement) successfully overthrew the government of Fulgencio Batista. Displeased with the socialist leanings of the new government, the United States trained and supported a military force of Cuban exiles to lead an assault on the fledgling Cuban Army. This operation, the Bay of Pigs Invasion (April 17-19 1961) was a complete failure and did nothing to destabilize Castro's control over the island nation. By 1963 the new government was moving towards a Communist system based on that of the USSR, with whom the nation would have strong ties for many decades.
The standard operational uniform of the Cuban Armed Forces has been olive green for many decades, but special units have been issued with camouflage uniforms from the 1970s onwards. These include special forces, border troops at Guantanamo Bay, and the several thousand Cuban military personnel that have served as advisors in southern Africa.